To override this challenge, the concept of Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) comes to play. As the name implies, while FTTH brings Fiber Optic Technology to the home, FTTP brings it to the premises. Indeed, the evolution in web technology is quite a quick one.

FTTP brings Fiber Optics technology to a particular locality and is considerably less costly when compared to FFTH. There is no denying therefore that FTTH is transforming internet communication and it is fast becoming commonplace.

FTTH improves internet speed facilitating communication and socialization between people. With the surge in number of people who work from home, the reliable high speed internet provided by the FTTH technology becomes highly sought after.

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)

 

The textbook definition for a Wide Area Network (WAN) is that it is a system that connects otherwise distant computers together. By this definition, WAN extend to large geographical locations and interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LAN). The three main components for a WAN are routers, switchers and modems. The router is an electronic device that connects a LAN to the WAN and performs the function of routing messages between the networked computers. Routing is the process of determining how to move packets from one network to another.

 

The routing information protocol (RIP) dynamically adapts changes to the network connections and communicate information about which of the networks the routers can reach and the distance between them. The distance vector protocol also called the bellman-ford algorithm requires each router to inform its neighbor of its routing table. The link state protocol also known as the Djikstra’s algorithm requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The switch is a network device for selecting the path or circuit through which unit of data can be sent to its next destination.


 

For high-capacity networks, switching is either through packet or circuit methods. In practical WAN, devices on the subscriber premises are referred to as Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) and they connect to the service provider’s nearest exchange through a cabling called the local loop. This local loop is served with data by the Data Transmitting Equipments (DTA) otherwise called Data Communications Equipment (DCE). It is the DCE/DCT that interfaces with the WAN cloud. WAN operates within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model using the layer 1 (physical also called the physical layer) and layer 2 (also called the data link level) levels. WAN encapsulation refers to the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header.

 

The various encapsulation types (such as SDLC, PPP and Frame delay) are supported by serial interfaces. It is important that the WAN encapsulation type must be identical on both sides of the link. Other important aspects of WAN are the ATM, ISDN, PSDN, DSL, ADSL, SDSL and HDSL. ATM which is short for Asynchronous Transfer Mode refers to a cell relay, packet switch network and protocol which encode data into small fixed-sized cells. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) serves the function of transmitting voice, data, voice, video and images across a telephone network. Packet switched data network (PSDN) as a data communication network but does not establish physical communication signal.

 

The Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is used for transmitting high bandwidth connections over copper wire telephone lines. Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line (ADSL) which is common with households provides high download speed but lower upload speed. Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) is allows the same upstream data ate and downstream rate. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line is one of the earliest forms of DSL and is used for wideband digital transmission.